Ancient Egypt Map With Divisions

As you can see in this Ancient Egypt Map, the country has two sea coasts. The North coast overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, the East coast overlooking the Red Sea.

Ancient Egypt Map

The Nile river splits the country in half, with almost all the inhabitants residing in cities or towns on the Nile's shores. As we already know, the ancient Egyptians relied fully on the Nile's yearly flooding to fertilize the soil...

The two sides of the Nile used to have different functions in ancient Egypt. The West was the land of the dead, so to speak, where the tombs and funerary temples would reside. The East would be the land of living, where homes and villages were, plus the cult temples of the gods.

Lower Egypt comprises of the northern part of the country, while Upper Egypt comprises of the southern part.

Historical Sites On The Ancient Egypt Map

Some of the most important sites of ancient Lower Egypt:

  • Rosetta - where the Rosetta Stone was discovered.
  • Alexandria - Capital city of the Greco-Roman Period of ancient Egypt.
  • Leontopolis - Cult center of Lionine deities such as the Goddess Sekhmet.
  • Bubastis - Cult center of the Cat Goddess Bastet.
  • Heliopolis - One of ancient Egypt's main cult centers and home to the Ennead Cosmology.
  • Giza - Home to the three most famous ancient Egyptian Pyramids and the Great Sphinx.
  • Cairo - Capital city of modern Egypt and home to the Cairo Museum of Antiquities.
  • Memphis - One of ancient Egypt's most important Capital Cities.
  • Saqqara or Sakkara - Home to the Step Pyramid of King Djoser.
  • Dahshur - Home to the Bent and Red Pyramids of King Snefru.
  • Meydum or Meidum - Home to the Pyramid of Meydum.
  • Hermopolis - Home to the Ogdoad Cosmology.

Some of the most important sites of ancient Upper Egypt:

  • El-Amarna - One of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt, home to the City of Akhenaten as well as palaces, temples and tombs.
  • Abydos - One of the most ancient of the ancient Egyptian cities and cult center of Osiris and Isis.
  • Dendera - Home to the Temple of Hathor.
  • Neqada - Local center of the God Seth.
  • Thebes - One of ancient Egypt's greatest Capital Cities, now located in the greater Luxor area and home to a third of the world's ancient artifacts.
  • Esna - Cult center of the God Khnum and his triad.
  • Hierakonpolis or Nekhen - Capital city and cult center of the God Horus of Nekhen.
  • Edfu - Home to the Ptolemaic Temple of Horus.
  • Sehel and Elephantine Islands - Cult centers of the Nile Goddesses Satet and Anuket.
  • Philae - Home to the Ptolemaic Temple of Isis.
  • Abu Simbel - Home to some of the most majestic ancient Egyptian temples, built by King Ramesses II.

You will also notice that many of the cities have Greek names. These names are still in use today, but most of them now also have Arabic counterparts.

For example - I myself live in a city called Heliopolis (not the ancient one), which is considered to be part of greater Cairo, but this city also has the Arabic name of "Misr Al Jadeeda"...

...the Greek name means "City of the Sun", while the Arabic name means "New Egypt".

While the ancient city of Heliopolis (close to the one where I live) is now called "Ain Shams" meaning Eye of the Sun in Arabic.

In fact, Egypt itself has many different names. There's of course "Egypt", which in Arabic (the national language of the country) is "Misr". As you know, the name of ancient Egypt is "Kemet" which means the black land.

It can get kind of confusing...

But not to worry, if you're ever visiting the country almost everyone knows all the names of all the different cities.

For more on Egypt's name, click here.

This ancient Egypt map does not do justice to ancient Nubia, which is also important in relation to ancient Egyptian history. Nubia itself is so vast with many histories that it deserves a whole section on its own.

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